Cellular Communication

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Mobile cellular communication is a leading network communication tool in modern era. The industry and academia is working collectively for Quality of Experience(QoE) related to cellular communication. In the past decade, we were completely focused upon technical aspects of the mobile networks. Only now are we looking forward to a better user experience rather than costly and complex technological details.

Consumers are greedy for cheap, energy efficient, reliable, and high throughput based communication networks. This is the motivation for several network technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Software Defined Networking (SDN), Fifth-generation (5G) networks, etc.; and all of which are targeting for better, fast, reliable and a cost efficient communication. For example, the 5G network has is targeting to achieve 1000 times more speed at a 100 times lesser cost. It is essential to realize that these targets are not easy, and need fundamental changes to the existing cellular technology. People are ready to accept certain changes in the current cellular technology, such as Device centric communication, massive MIMO, intelligent device, etc. There are several challenges associated with these, a couple of them include Physical and Network layer management.

Most of the challenges can be solved by the extreme densification of mobile base station and systematic arrangement of multiple antennas. If we implement device-based communication with the association of 5G, then it will be a remarkable achievement in the modern communication domain. The suggested idea will reduce the cost associated with communication, and yield a better throughput. Also, a user would be able to communicate with another cellular device without any interface of cellular base station. But this particular technique has certain open research challenges, such as:

  • Relay selection techniques: If the source and target mobile user are very distant. They would then need an intermediate node such as a relay node.
  • Bandwidth and link utilization techniques for user-centric networks:The mobile user will sense link utilization, and based on the result the user can initiate the quality of experience services.
  • Green and energy efficient networks: Where "green" represents minimum carbon dioxide emission.

Energy efficient networks show the least energy consumption for long distance(hop-to-hop) communication.These suggested techniques are bound to enhance the user experience and improve the network coverage. Cell breathing will also be applicable in base station densification, and it helps for context aware networking. If the user load is less in a particular coverage area then the mobile base station serving area will shrink, and this results in uniform load distribution. The proposed idea is a deployment of device centric networking in the cellular communication. The device based communicating was initially introduced in cellular networks as a new paradigm to enhance network performance to increased spectral efficiency and reduced communication delay.

We can implement the said concept in following ways: The relay selection and link utilization can map a very natural process, such as least utilization of path. In general we follow the least utilized path to travel from source to destination. The same methodology can be applicable here. Compute the least utilized path based on SNR, energy, delay etc. and select the best one.

The green networking aims at lesser carbon dioxide emission. We can deal with it with the envision of two-tier cellular network that involves a macro cell tier and a device tier network topology, which will provide a better cell coverage and less signal loss, and will also lead to lesser energy consumptions. The proposed architecture will be a dramatic change from the conventional cellular architecture and will also bring about a unique technical revolution. In such a two-tier cellular system, since the user data is routed through other users’ devices, security must be maintained for privacy. To ensure minimal impact on the performance of existing macro cell BSs, the network needs to be designed with smart interference management strategies and appropriate resource allocation schemes. The theoretical aspect of idea can be achieved by mathematical analysis, and practical implementations can be done by programmable GNU radios and daughterboard design.